Four broad thematic areas are used to organize current topics in the field of arts and culture management. Part one introduces a mixture of perspectives about the history and evolution of the practice and study of arts management, the role of arts managers, and how arts management is being impacted by the digital age.
Part two focuses on the dynamics of entrepreneurship, change processes, and leadership practices. Part three includes globally focused topics on cultural policy, cultural rights, and community building. Part four examines a sampling of topics related to functional activities that are common to arts and culture organizations around the world such as marketing, planning, increasing diversity, hiring, fundraising, and sustainability. This book builds a comprehensive understanding of what arts management can mean in an international context ,creating an essential resource for students, scholars and reflective practitioners involved at the intersection of business and the arts.
Research Online. The ambition to explicitly anchor theprocess of research in the arts also aims to bring together the two kinds of practicesthat once were closely related, but became separated due to their different historicaltrajectories. It is the processoriented toward the realm of possibilities that is to be explored, manipulated,controlled, given shape and form, and transformed.
Research is inherently besetby uncertainties, since the results or outcomes are by definition unknown. Aftercenturies of separation, it promises to close a loop. How did this ambitious project come about? And what does it mean, what canit mean today in a globalizing world in which economic competitiveness is based onscience and technology as the recognized engine that drives economic growth?
Whereis the place of artistic practices in a world in which economic forces seem to appropriateall forms of human creativity and make it subservient to their own ends? Some of the driving forces are external, coming from outside academia and fromthe wider societal context. Others are internal, originating in the dynamics of artisticdevelopments.
Among the external forces, two stand out and receive ample, mostlycritical comments in the contributions to this volume: the pull of the market and therole of the state. There is no doubt that the consumption of artistic production hassignificantly expanded over the last decades. This is partly related to the general increasein economic wealth in contemporary, especially Western, societies although the morerecent emergence of an art market in countries like China and India underlines theglobal dimension of the phenomenon.
But the expansion is not merely quantitative. The pull of the market provides new opportunities. Needless to say,it also brings its pitfalls.
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One specific manifestation of the expansive and continuingpull of the market is the thriving of the creative industries. Yet, there has also been another, less recognized market expansion, namely that ofthe labour market for graduates with a background in the arts and design Menger The role of the state manifests itself in the ongoing expansion of higher education,although outside Europe the market is strongly present. This expansion is a worldwidephenomenon, with parents increasingly expecting to give their children betterchances to succeed in life through education.
Foreword by helga nowotnyuse and diffusion of modern information and communication technologies. In the contextof the emergence of a European Higher Education Area, the Bologna process — used,misused, and abused in its implementation — has brought about irreversible changesfor and in universities in Europe. With it, perhaps inevitably, issues of quality controlhave arisen to which the arts are also subject if they claim space inside the universitystructure.
The changing relationship between the arts and society These forces of change with a major impact coming from outside would, however,not have gone very far, had they not been accompanied or even preceded by dynamicforces from within the field of the arts themselves. These internal forces are by nomeans homogeneous or pushing in the same direction.
They come in a colluding orrebelling mode; they are farsighted in their vision of the future or hostile to institutionalinnovations while nostalgically turning backward. Just as the role of the market and ofthe state are conditioned and constrained by the global context, the internal forces inthe arts are not autonomous, either.
At their core is the ongoing transformation of therelationship between society and the arts. First comes the ongoing proliferation of sites and modes of artistic production.
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They are now widely distributed and spread throughout society. Second, there are the ongoing attempts to find, and define, the place of the artswithin the structure of universities and other institutions of higher education. Havingescaped, or perhaps only delayed, the formalization of education and training withinthe disciplinary matrix that characterized the structure of the modern university in thesecond half of the nineteenth century may turn out to be a comparative advantage.
Foreword by helga nowotnybut a most welcome and much desired way of enhancing creativity across presumeddisciplinary borderlines Harvard Third, and perhaps most importantly, the observed changes in the relationshipbetween the arts and society at large have been greatly facilitated, enhanced, andenabled by the fervent embrace of the new media by artists.
In short, the ambition to give research a firm place in the arts through PhD trainingand as an ongoing, conscious effort consists in finding ways of translating thesetransformative forces, which have been unleashed on a global scale, into a coherentand meaningful assemblage.
Individual creativity, but also collective forms of workingtogether, must converge with material practices and institutional structures thatenable them to cohere, thereby empowering research in the arts to unfold its dynamic. Obviously, the institutional forms needed must be sustainable and sufficiently flexible. With exemplary clarity, Henk Borgdorff has spelt out how togo about this Chapter 3.
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According to this vision, artistic research will take its placebeside scientific research on equal footing. It is a vision with which I wholeheartedlyconcur. Artistic practices, just like scientific practices, will thereby widen the scope ofresearch, with the enormous potential to enrich all fields of research.
Not surprisingly, such an ambitious undertaking reveals inherent tensions thataccompany its implementation. Some of them point to real obstacles that must beovercome, while others can perhaps be dispelled, as the following section shows. Tensions and disagreements Disagreements and tensions arise around the concept of artistic research itself.
Whatis it? How does it differfrom scientific research — if the two can be compared at all? Heemphasizes the role played by leading research questions and their pertinence to theart world. Many of the seemingly insurmountable orinsoluble issues and many of the alleged incompatibilities between them arise fromdefinitions in the analytic philosophy of science, with its emphasis on propositionalknowledge. Taking these definitions as a yardstick overlooks that research processesand practices that are based on the pursuit of propositional knowledge constitute onlya minor part of the broad range and vast differences in the actual practices in theproduction of new scientific knowledge.
Contesting this philosophical tradition andits narrow range, STS, as science and technology studies are called, have over the lastfew decades elucidated knowledge practices at work in the laboratory and far beyond. As shown in numerous empirical studies,not only does the historical context matter, but so does the present. Certainly, a controlled interior hasto be separated from an uncontrolled exterior. The unstable experimental objectmust be rendered stable to allow controlled variation.
But scientific practices arenot restricted to the laboratory or even to an experimental system. Far from it. STShas unravelled many heterogeneous networks that extend throughout society andamong its actors and institutions. From an ANT perspective, humans and theartistic phenomena they produce and interact with, can also be seen as constitutingcontinuously reconfigured assemblages.
Researchers in the arts are therefore welladvised — and invited — to delve into the burgeoning STS literature.hearsyfelhama.tk
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Following suchan approach, the social order and the scientific order condition each other. Cultural,economic, and political prerequisites have to be fulfilled before certain scientificachievements and their spread in society are possible. For this reason, the organizationof research, its epistemological goals, and its funding structure also change. Foreword by helga nowotny Is there room for artistic research in this changing epistemological, institutional,and normative landscape in the bewildering zones of uncertainties?
This is not to deny the many differences between thearts and the sciences and their respective practices. Other emerging tensions and disagreements that surface in the following contributionsare not unique to artists, either.
Take the discussion aboutevaluation and quality control Chapter Which criteria are to be used whencomparing texts and artefacts? What are the specific guidingnorms and tests to be applied for artistic research Chapter 5? Similar discussions arisein the humanities, and partly in the social sciences, whenever the scientific communityis called upon to set up its own standards of quality control and come up with its criteriaof evaluation.
It does not need to be emphasized that the resistance against the Bolognaprocess, too, is far from unique to the arts. Another set of issues concerns the tensions between the individual creative actand collaborative forms of work. The subjectivity of the artist as worker has definitelychanged. The overall tendencyin the sciences is to move increasingly toward collaborative practices, reinforced bythe need to share expensive instrumentation and equipment. Forms of collaborationcan be quite nuanced, however, and are never free of tension, since the attribution ofcredit to the individuals involved is always at stake, and mobility, while considerednecessary for the flow of ideas, often carries a hidden personal cost Chapter Yet, incontemporary societies, an individual can hardly undertake anything without findinghimself or herself caught in a complex network of interdependencies.
But it also offers new opportunities torealize projects that no individual alone could aspire to achieve. Forms of collaborationdo not negate the individual, quite the contrary. Foreword by helga nowotny The discussion of methods appropriate for artistic research also occupies a good partof the centre stage in the ongoing discussion. Experimentation is frequently mentionedand is one of the oldest methods with which artists have always worked, as central forthem as it is for scientists.
In the arts, as in the sciences, there is an enormous heterogeneity of actual practices Chapter Yet this heterogeneity and its explosive mixture of styles and genres, each of which hasits own tradition and dynamic projections into the future, is the cauldron for creativityas it erupts and emerges in the experimental system set up for artistic research in all itsmanifold manifestations and configurations.